The article “Attributes of spiritual care in nursing practice” incorporates a micro-range theory as it tends to relate concepts which are solid in reality as research and practice have proved them to be necessary in nursing practice. Consequently, this could be one reason as to why the selfless approach of the descriptive category of conceptual frameworks was used. These have been significant in developing a close relationship between the framework and major elements of the study such as methodology. Similarly, the theoretical framework has portrayed major impacts on the nursing practice thus making it an important component of nursing research.
Did financial considerations nevertheless play a role in lowering this journal’s academic standards? Without further evidence concerning the internal processes at Cogent Social Sciences , it is hard to say. (For what it’s worth, Boghossian and Lindsay apparently never even received an invoice for the putative $625 minimum charge.) But at a more general level, the dynamics of open access is clear: the pay-to-publish model permits the existence of very-low-tier academic journals that on the traditional publishing model would fail to attract enough paid subscriptions to survive. ( Cogent Social Sciences no doubt belongs to this category.) So, in this sense, pay-to-publish probably does contribute to a lowering of academic standards at the lowest non-predatory tier: more marginal articles will get published. Is this a good thing or a bad thing? I don’t really know. After all, any of the above-cited articles from Cogent Social Sciences —even if they are admittedly not earth-shaking—could potentially be of value to future workers on its specialized subject.