The last changes in the Renaissance fashion were done towards the beginning of the 17th Century. The high hose worn by the northern nations, profusely trimmed, was transformed into the culotte , which was full and open at the knees. A division was thus suddenly made between the lower and the upper part of the hose, as if the garment which covered the lower limbs had been cut in two, and garters were then necessarily invented. The felt hat became over almost the whole of Europe a cap, taking the exact form of the head, and having a wide, flat brim turned up on one side. High heels were added to boots and shoes, which up to that time had been flat and with single soles.
Renaissance portraiture often had a two-fold function with a built-in insurance policy against the collapse of humanist values. On one hand the ruling classes and prosperous merchants had their portraits painted to display their fame and fortune; on the other, they commissioned donor portraits as an endorsement of their religious faith. Donor portraits were paintings of the person or family who commissioned the work, usually kneeling to give thanks to a patron saint or the Holy Family. They were presented as gifts to the Church and acted both as a memorial of the donor and as a petition for prayers for their immortal soul.