Theories of Motivation
What is motivation? According to text, motivation is defined as a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a certain goal. Motivation is the energy that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied so that we have inspiration to complete the mission. These needs vary from person to person as everybody has their individual needs to motivate themselves. Depending on how motivated we are, it may further determine the effort we put into our work and therefore increase the standard of the productivity. There have been a wide variety of theories about motivation developed over the years. Several are drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, psychosocial (both incentive and cognitive) theory, and Maslow’s H... Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper
In terms of work's future; Braverman's deskilling theory is pessimistic whilst Atkinson's flexible firm is optimistic. However both believe work is heading in one direction, but empirical studies show diverse production developments (Haralambos & Holborn 2000:717). It could be argued that we have moved from industry based upon the worker subordinated to machine pace towards one based upon the worker's knowledge/specialism - but still reliant upon machines (computers and internet/communications). Spatial organisation is central in how specific tasks and resources (labour and capital) are placed in certain places; it is this reorganisation that characterises new production methods. If Fordism was central to modernity development, perhaps Post-Fordism is central to Post-modernity. Overall, there is more published Fordism material than Post-Fordist as we are now in Post-Fordist era so a fair comparison could only be made when more is known about the latter's history.
Fordism is a tag used to characterise the post-1945 long boom experienced by western nations. It is typified by a cycle of mass production and mass consumption, the production of standardized (most often) consumer items to be sold in (typically) protected domestic markets, and the use of Keynesian economic policies. While the standard pattern is postwar America, national variations of this standard norm are well known. Regulation theory talks of National Modes of Growth to denote different varieties of Fordism across western economies.