In the Roman Catholic reading of Augustine , the issue of just war as developed in his book The City of God substantially established his position concerning the positive justification of killing, suffering and pain as inflicted upon an enemy when encountered in war for a just cause.  Augustine asserted that peacefulness in the face of a grave wrong that could only be stopped by violence would be a sin. Defense of one's self or others could be a necessity, especially when authorized by a legitimate authority. While not elaborating the conditions necessary for war to be just, Augustine nonetheless originated the very phrase, itself, in his work The City of God .  In essence, the pursuit of peace must include the option of fighting with all of its eventualities in order to preserve peace in the long-term.  Such a war could not be pre-emptive, but defensive, to restore peace.  Thomas Aquinas , centuries later, used the authority of Augustine's arguments in an attempt to define the conditions under which a war could be just.  
Russell Bertrand in his publication, Why I am Not a Christian and other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects , remarked that when he thinks about the universe, he feels that there is an existence of an underlying force that is greater than human force. He offers a simple yet deep argument about the existence of God. In his works, Russell points out that, whatever scientific works discovers is only re-cognizing and re-thinking what was earlier conceived by the human mind. With this he continues that since both signify God and intelligence, religion and science need to be at harmony. It is further ironical that modern scientific emerged in Christian studia generalia/universitas where creation ideas were also taught (Russell, 97).
Often when I describe the study of the great books as a tool in apologetics, people visualize their study as somewhat of a brutal secular gauntlet the Christian must run in order to gain intellectual credibility. This is a mistaken understanding. Certainly there is much in the western intellectual tradition that must be consciously rejected and put under biblical criticism; however, it is the non-believer and not the Christian who must fear the reading of the great books. Those who through the promotion of political correctness would return us to polytheistic paganism have come to realize that they must entirely throw out the study of western culture if they are going to reshape the thinking of our students. Western thought has been permeated with Christian monotheism and thus a persistent concept of objective and universal truth. It will always be dangerous territory for the mental slugs that political correctness would raise up on its diet of insipid relativism.