The Licentiate of Engineering is an intermediate postgraduate degree used only in a few countries, among them Sweden and Finland, and can be seen as an academic step halfway between a Master's and a PhD. In Swedish, it is called Teknologie Licentiat , usually abbreviated as Tekn. Lic. , and in Finnish, tekniikan lisensiaatti , abbreviated as TkL . The Licentiate of Engineering corresponds to 120 ECTS credits (80 workweeks (old credits)), or nominally two years of full-time work, whereas a PhD amounts to 240 ECTS credits (160 workweeks (old credits)), or a nominal period of four years of full-time work (one old credit equals one week of full-time studies). However, as a result of the differences in requirements and individual performance, the time to complete a Licentiate of Engineering degree varies. For the thesis, 2–3 peer-refereed articles (or an equivalent monograph) is usually required, and there is no requirement for original research per se . In contrast, a doctoral thesis requires 4–6 articles and must demonstrate original research.
“ Biochemistry may be described as the study of living systems, using the methods of chemistry and physics. Life is a complex of interrelated chemical reactions. Even the structural features on which taxonomic classifications are mainly based are the products of chemical reactions. In any case, structure, since it survives nearly intact when a cell or organism dies, is clearly not life, although a high degree of structure is probably required for life. Disruption of the interrelated chemical activities of an organism is death; by the same token, these chemical activities, collectively, are life.”