FORUM NAZIONALE “ANALISI QUALITATIVA” (FNAQ)
Roma, 27 novembre 2009
Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Educazione
Presentazione del volume di Barney G. Glaser, Anselm L. Strauss,
a cura di A. Strati
LA SCOPERTA DELLA GROUNDED THEORY.
STRATEGIE PER LA RICERCA QUALITATIVA
(Armando, Roma, 2009)
e del volume di Massimiliano Tarozzi
CHE COS’È LA GROUNDED THEORY
(Carocci, Roma, 2008)
Interventi di Antonio Strati e Massimiliano Tarozzi
[A]n entire ensemble is often much simpler than one of its members. This principle can be stated more formally using the notion of algorithmic information content. The algorithmic information content in a number is, roughly speaking, the length of the shortest computer program that will produce that number as output. For example, consider the set of all integers . Which is simpler, the whole set or just one number? Naively, you might think that a single number is simpler, but the entire set can be generated by quite a trivial computer program, whereas a single number can be hugely long. Therefore, the whole set is actually simpler... (Similarly), the higher-level multiverses are simpler. Going from our universe to the Level I multiverse eliminates the need to specify initial conditions , upgrading to Level II eliminates the need to specify physical constants , and the Level IV multiverse eliminates the need to specify anything at all.... A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably most elegant theory involves parallel universes by default. To deny the existence of those universes, one needs to complicate the theory by adding experimentally unsupported processes and ad hoc postulates: finite space , wave function collapse and ontological asymmetry. Our judgment therefore comes down to which we find more wasteful and inelegant: many worlds or many words. Perhaps we will gradually get used to the weird ways of our cosmos and find its strangeness to be part of its charm. 
The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency . This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability (later called situational control ). The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group (relationship-oriented), and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented).  According to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a "favorable situation". Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability.